OVERVIEW

A youth policy, also known as a youth development policy or strategy, is usually a holistic, positive, non-political policy document that sets out a government’s long-term investment priorities and goals related to youth.

Based on a survey of youth development policies around the world, including the United Kingdom, Sweden, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Mongolia and Macau (SAR of China), it is found that youth development policies commonly contain these elements: an overarching vision, an analysis of the current situation of youth backed by statistics, a review of existing measures pertaining to youth, stakeholders’ views and future policy directions.

Of course, there is no single approach to youth development. Some countries are more paternalistic in their views of young people (that young people must be protected and/or taken care of), or fragmented in their policy measures (the laundry list approach), or both.

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Postive for youth 2011-2015

With youth in focus 2013/14

National strategy for young austratians

Youth development strategy aotearoa 2002

Vision for children and young people 2010

Nantional program of action for the developemnt and protection of children

Macau youth policy 2012-2020

13 to 19 years old

13 to 25 years old

12 to 24 years old

12 to 24 years old

From lower secondary school to 18 years old

Not specified, but includes “child” and “adolescent”

13 to 29 years old

In a society that is positive for youth, young people will enjoy their teenage years and make a successful transition through to adulthood. They will realise their potential through supportive relationships, strong ambitions and good opportunities

All young people should have access to good living conditions, power to shape their own lives and influence over the development of the society

For all young people to grow up safe, healthy, happy, and resilient and to have the opportunities and skills they need to learn, work, engage in community life and influence decisions that affect them

To have young people that are vibrant and optimistic through being supported and encouraged to take up challenges

No overarching vision

To build a legal environment to protect the rights of children in Mongolia, and to develop children themselves, allowing them to obtain a good quality education and profession, and improve their livelihood

To promote the well-rounded development of young people and support them to face challenges and achieve their goals, thereby cultivating a younger generation with high aspirations, integrity, competence, independent and critical thinking, creativity, and constructive capacity, who are also healthy physically and mentally and mindful of their rights and responsibilities

Youth-relevant data was compared 18 months after the policy was released. There was overall improvement across different areas

The MUCF has a web-based monitoring system for youth-policy relevant indicators

No evaluation of effectiveness of youth policy

No evaluation of effectiveness of youth policy

No evaluation of effectiveness of youth policy

The National Council for Children released its findings in the Fifth National Periodic Report of Mongolia on the Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (2014)

The Education and Youth Affairs Bureau commissioned a local university to conduct a mid-term evaluation in 2016. Evaluation results are yet to be released

Holistic;
Resilience

Holistic;
Poststructural

Holistic;
Prevention

Holistic;
Strength

Fragmented;
Deficit

Fragmented;
Deficit

Holistic;
Deficit

From local level(youth councils) to national level (Youth Parliament, Youth Select Committee)

Dialogue tour; Youth Council; online campaign and national survey

Australian Youth Forum; National Conversation

Meetings with youth, focus groups and online forums

Recognise youth diversity as of right

Pathways into education, work and training are flexible to cater for different needs and learning styles

Respect the situation of each young person

Diversify pathways into education and career

Promote vocational training and continued professional development

The policy was developed by 9 government departments and presents a shared vision across the interests of these departments

Adopt an overall “youth perspective”

The “whole person whole life” perspective sees each area of young people’s lives as having an impact on others

Strong emphasis on partnerships among stakeholders

Policies by specific areas of need, including health, education, employment and welfare

Policies by specific areas of need, including welfare, safety, health, and education

Vision includes balanced and holistic youth development

Underscore youth’s potential of making positive contributions to the society (not their problems)

Support young people’s independence

Shift collective thinking about young people from a problem based to a strengths based approach

Develop skills that youth need and give them opportunities to contribute to their environments

Focused on protection against harms and risks (e.g., of delinquency)

Preventing delinquency and illegal behavior is a key objective

Prevent abuse, youth crimes and bullying

Strengthen early intervention (with e.g., school disengagement, risk taking behaviors, mental health issues)

The strengthsbased approach addresses both risk prevention and positive development

Responsive to problems e.g., freeters, NEET, school withdrawal, delinquency, abuse, bullying and suicide

Prevent youth crimes, violence, abuse and exploitation

Prevents delinquency primarily by counseling

Provide opportunities in education, for personal and social development

Provide real access to influence over everyday lives

Equip young people to shape their futures through education

Equip young people with the skills and personal networks for employment

Give young people access to a range of development opportunities such that they can influence their lives through choices and skills

Heavy emphasis on counseling

Improve access to healthcare, quality education, and professional training; while at the same time, expanding social services

Improve mobility through training and skills development, while at the same time enhancing access to information and opportunities

Heavy emphasis on counselling, especially on career and life planning and delinquency prevention

Support youth relationships with family, peers, communities

Support young people within their families

See the “big picture” of socioeconomic context and cultural values

Connect young people to their families, communities, schools, workplaces, and peers

Foster quality relationships

Enhance familybased protection

Build an inclusive and loving environment in families, schools and the community

Provide opportunities for young people to have their voices heard

Provide real access to participate in community action

Empower young people to take part in their communities

Enable young people to participate safely online

Create opportunities for young people to actively participate and engage

Encourage youth’s full participation

Provide opportunities for exposure and social participation

Encourage participation through community action, but more focused on developing the abilities of youth to express their ideas

Create more channels and platforms for youth to express their views